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Most popular Weight Loss Procedure In the US
Sleeve gastrectomy is a type of restrictive surgery that is done on the stomach only. With this surgery, there is nothing done to the intestines. This operation is sometimes called a partial gastrectomy, as well as a vertical sleeve gastrectomy. This surgery takes the stomach, which looks much like a pouch, and changing it into a tube, giving it the name sleeve.
With a sleeve gastrectomy, about 2/3 of the stomach is removed. Allowing the patient to feel fuller faster and to have less of an appetite. The tubular stomach looks like a banana.
How Sleeve Gastrectomy Works
Restrict your food intake
There are several ways that this surgery works. The first is that the new stomach will hold less food than before, which means less food can be eaten and fewer calories. An even more significant impact is that the surgery affects the gut’s hormones, impacting several factors, including blood sugar control, feeling satisfied, and hunger.
Having a smaller stomach restricts how much food the patient can take in by being large enough to have a small amount of food coming in at once. The stomach’s outlet valve is still there, so the normal stomach-emptying process can continue, allowing the patient to feel full.
Sleeve Gastrectomy's Effectiveness
This operation is done in a single stage. There is no need for anastomosis or a new connection between the small intestine and stomach. The intestine is not removed. It does not cause dumping syndrome or malabsorption. Sleeve gastrectomy has been found to be better than an adjustable band because part of the stomach is removed that creates ghrelin, a hormone that controls hunger. In combined procedures, the complication rate on average is about 2-3%, while the rate with this operation is under 0.5%.
There have been short-term studies that reveal that the sleeve procedure is just as effective as having a roux-en-Y gastric bypass when it comes to the remission or improvement of type 2 diabetes and weight loss. It’s also suggested that this operation, much like a gastric bypass, can help improve type 2 diabetes even if there is no weight loss. With this surgery, the complication rate is in between those of the roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the adjustable gastric band.
Sleeve gastrectomy has 4 advantages
This surgery does not use foreign body implantation as gastric banding does with its silastic ring.
It requires less in terms of maintenance over the long term when compared with gastric banding, as there are no band fills needed.
It gives patients the benefit of allowing a severely obese patient to lose enough weight so that they can get a different procedure later, such as a staged surgery.
The stomach is mechanically made smaller, but this procedure also means a lower amount of the ghrelin hormone, which is responsible for the patient feeling full. Part of the stomach that makes this hormone is removed during this surgery.
Benefits of Sleeve Gastrectomy
With this surgery, the size of the stomach is increased mechanically. Still, the procedure also decreases how much of the hormone ghrelin is secreted, which determines how full the patient feels. The operation takes out the stomach area that makes this hormone.
There are both emotional and medical benefits from getting weight loss surgery, and they start almost immediately after the operation.
These benefits can include:
- It lowers how much food the stomach is able to hold
- It begins significant weight loss rapidly, and studies have shown the loss to be similar to the roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
- There is no foreign object left inside, and there is no re-routing or bypass of the stream of food.
- It only requires a hospital stay of about two days.
- It changes gut hormones favorably so that hunger is suppressed, appetite is reduced and satiety is improved.
- It improves type 2 diabetes.
- It can lower cholesterol and blood pressure.
- It can relieve sleep apnea.
- It offers relief from acid reflux.
- It helps to decrease joint pain.
- It improves mobility.
- It improves mood and raises self-esteem.
- It improves asthma.
- It reduces migraines.
Risks of Sleeve Gastrectomy
Like any surgery, weight-loss surgery comes with its own risks, and you should be aware of them.
These risks include:
- This procedure is not reversible.
- It has a higher rate of early complications than with gastric banding.
- There is a risk of internal infection from digestive liquids leaking into the body cavity.
- There can be a hernia and a weakened abdominal wall.
- You can develop gallstones or gallbladder disease from the rapidity of the weight loss.
- There is a chance of blood clots as well as a pulmonary embolism.
- You may have vitamin deficiencies, but these can be prevented by taking vitamin supplements every day. You may need occasional lab testing.
- Just as with any surgical operation, there is a risk of death.